從桃影看國際 從家族看國族
《生活在天堂》、《家在戰火中》呈現敘利亞問題,《不即不離》爬梳馬共歷史


《家在戰火中》劇照

正熱烈播映中的桃園電影節,近日的映後座談中,剛好有三部從家族或個人生命探索國族議題的作品,包含聚焦在阿勒坡戰爭、敘利亞問題的《生活在天堂》《家在戰火中》,和回溯祖父缺席與馬共歷史的《不即不離》。

《生活在天堂》導演伊克連.海度(Ekrem Heydo)透露,為了拍攝這部片,回到敘利亞艾因角三次,2013年首次回去時卻發現昔日同學大多早已逃到其他國家或是已經遇難,他甚至只能拍攝城市一半的範圍,因為被支持伊斯蘭教派的部隊佔領,直到阿拉伯人、庫德族及基督徒聯手將伊斯蘭教勢力趕出艾因角後,這些友人才陸續回到家鄉,之後兩次的拍攝才順利完成。對導演來說,在他求學時期的記憶,這些多元種族原本就和平共存,然而戰爭爆發之後,各種外國勢力的介入,提供武器及支援等,讓這場戰爭無止無境的延續,他認為這些國家應該切斷武器的供應,讓敘利亞停火,然後再施加壓力,恢復和平協議。所以他現在能做的,就是讓這部紀錄片被更多人看到。


《生活在天堂》導演 Ekrem Heydo

原定來台與觀眾交流的《家在戰火中》導演阿沃.卡波利安(Avo Kaprealian),則是住在敘利亞境內的亞美尼亞裔影人,策展團隊從二月就發出邀請,但他一直到三月底才解決護照問題確定來台,可惜影展開幕前夕,導演因為更換居留證的關係確定無法來台,在寫給策展團隊的信中,導演感慨的表示,以前更換居留證只需一週時間,但因戰爭爆發的敏感因素,現在得花上一個月,所以如果他要來台,將無法回到家鄉,信末還特地寫了一句「希望在不久的將來,我們能在沒有邊界的世界相會」。這封信也讓人對現今敘利亞情勢之嚴重感到憂心。


《不即不離》導演 廖克發

除了這兩部描述敘利亞情勢的作品外,臺灣獎競賽單元的作品《不即不離》,也是從家族史窺探國族歷史的作品,在馬來亞(馬來西亞前身)試圖推翻英國殖民與日軍侵入的時期,許多人都因著自身的理由(例如學習識字、女權地位)而加入共產黨,導演廖克發從探訪自己父親來追溯曾經身為馬共的祖父,他在拍攝時,印象最深刻的一個段落是他父親從一開始否定對祖父有任何記憶,直到導演訪問到姑姑,姑姑說出當年祖父白日躲藏於叢林間,直到夜間才偷偷回家幫當時年幼的導演父親洗澡時,他才彷彿勾起些微回憶,廖克發說,那一刻他感覺父親的眼神發亮,他相信此時父親終於理解祖父並沒有因為加入共產黨而拋家棄子。

Seeing the World from Taoyuan

Among the selected films in the 2017 Taoyuan Film Festival, there are three documentary entries that tackle the subject of family history, race, and nationality from a personal perspective. 

Ekrem Heydo’s documentary film My Paradise (2016) is based on the story of the director's former classmates pictured in a class photograph taken 25 years ago. During the post-screening Q&A session, the German director of Syrian-Kurdish descent said that he resided in Germany for more than 20 years and returned to his hometown Serekani on the Syrian-Turkish border for the first time in 2013 to visit his former classmates of different ethnic backgrounds who had been living side-by-side in harmony until the war broke out. When asked if there is any possible solution to the Syria crisis, the director believed that first a cease fire agreement should come into effect with the help of the foreign super powers that should both give pressure to the parties they support while cutting off any weapon supply. What he could do as a filmmaker is to show audiences across the globe the reality of the people who live there. 

Director Avo Kaprealian’s Houses without Doors (2016) is also included in this year’s selection. Shot from the balcony of his family’s apartment in Aleppo, a historical city where thousands of Armenian refugees took shelter about a hundred years ago, the Armenian-Syrian director documented the daily life on the streets with his camera. The director felt regretful that he couldn’t make it to the festival in person due to complications with his travel documents. As he wrote to the festival, he wished that “one day in the future we can all meet in a world without borders.” 

Closer to home is the film Absent without Leave (2016) co-directed by LAU Kek-Huat from Malaysia and CHEN Jing-Lian from Taiwan. Beginning with a portrait of a mysterious man who turns out to be director LAU’s grandfather, the film reveals the history of the Malaysian Communists of which many including the director’s grandfather joined the party not for political reasons but for personal survival during the pre-independence era.  The director said that, in the making of the film, his family, especially his father finally came to understand better his grandfather who had no choice but to abandon the family for reasons beyond his controls.